been, down through the years, a belief by many white people that
blacks from the southern states often sang nonsense lyrics. From an
otherwise very sympathetic Fanny Anne Kemble in the 1830s, on down
to 1888 when another Englishwoman tracing the sea shanty, reports
"The "chanty-men" have, to some extent, kept to the silly words of
the negroes, and have altered the melodies to suit their
It has been generally
accepted that it was around the latter date that the Blues finally
evolved into a recognisable form. The same attitude by some whites
persisted in their view of the blues; this includes some writers on the
Blues. A strange position when you consider that the Blues is primarily
a vocal music and therefore the lyrics, at one or more levels, are often
of great importance to the black listener for whom the Blues were
A case in point crops up as
late as 1990, concerning Robert Johnson. In that year, Columbia/C.B.S.
released the definitive issue of this singers' recorded output "Robert
Johnson The Complete Recordings" in the U.S. and U.K. respectively. One
of Johnson's well-known titles which was included as "Last Fair Deal
Gone Down". This blues alluded to the Gulf & Ship Island Railroad; Ship
Island laying off the Mississippi coast at Gulfport. In the liner
notes to this issue, Eric Clapton and co. include the following
"Take camp tain he and see
camp ain't he and see
At scal ain't be at seen,,
good Lord On that Gulfport Island Road" (2).
Clapton and co. note that "The underlined passages above are phonetic
approximations of what Johnson sings, which, in truth, may be
nonsensical."(3). Why? None of the remaining verses of "Last Fair Deal"
can be considered nonsense, so it would be illogical, and out of
character, for Johnson to suddenly insert lines which are
meaningless. In any case a 'phonetic approximation' of countless folk
songs as well as blues, could easily appear not to make sense.
It would help to dig a little
deeper into the background of Johnson's subject matter before passing
judgement. Calt tells us that the Gulf & Ship Island H.R.
"...constructed Gulfport between 1887-1902." (4). This echoes a report by
Alan Lomax over 20 years earlier. Said Lomax: "The
line was extended through the piney woods country to Jackson, probably
with the aid of leased convict labor". (5). (see map).
Lomax is referring
to the infamous convict lease system which Salmond states "... began in
South in the years immediately following the Civil War" (6). The author
adds "In the late nineteenth century, most southern states adopted some
variant of this practice."(7), and "Both black and white convicts were
leased, and it was generally conceded that the treatment of the blacks
was even more cruel than that meted out to the whites." (8).
In fact it was more than just 'probably' in the case of the Gulf & Ship
Island R.R. In January, 1887 the Mississippi State board of control
investigated "the Gulf & Ship Island Railroad in Harrison County. This
railroad, which had been using a number of convicts since 1884 had taken over the entire leasing system on very favourable terms
early in 1887. (9). Favourable to the railroad company, that is.
Conditions for the black convicts were found to be as horrific and
barbarous as under various private sub-lessees up to this time. After
another "embarrassing investigation in 1888",
the public outcry "finally convinced the president of the railroad that
the use of the convicts was not worth its cost in "unjust and harmful
criticism". As a result, the corporation cancelled its lease and returned
the convicts to the prison."(10). After 1894, legislature established
the prison/county farm system in Mississippi; which was often hardly
less horrific, if other accounts and the number of blues sung about it,
are anything to go by.
The inhuman conditions which convicts
suffered whilst on lease to the Gulf & Ship Island R.R. did not go
unreported in black song. One such prison song that probably dates back
to the 1880s is "It Makes A Long Time Man Feel Bad". A version survives
which was made in 1947 for the
Congress, by a group of prison inmates in the Mississippi State
Penitentiary at Parchman; otherwise Parchman Farm. The lead singer was a
young man known only as "22"; together with an unidentified group he
included the lines:
"Oh Captain George,--he was a
hard--oh drivin' man (x3)
Lord, Lordy--out on the Gulf--and Ship Island Road."(11).
Lomax, who collected this recording,
curiously rendering the conclusion of the last line as "the Gulf and
Road", in his transcription!
Some 12 years later in another State pen., Angola in Louisiana this
time, Guitar Welch was recorded by Harry Oster. Singing a capella with
support from Hogman Maxey and Andy Mosely, one of the songs Welch did
was "Alberta Let Your Bangs Grow Long". Included in this song,
which roughly follows the tune of the 1947 one recorded in
Mississippi, are the lines:
"If you cry 'bout a nickel, Alberta, you'll die 'bout a dime"
Robert Johnson, himself a son of the Mississippi Delta, featured these
words in a 1936 recording, substituting 'Annabelle' for
'Alberta'. Again, using the same tune (but slightly speeded up), he
called it "Last Fair Deal Gone Down". No doubt capturing the unfortunate
convicts' frame of mind on being leased to the notorious Gulf & Ship
Island R.R. in 1887. Johnson recalls another verse of the prison song:
"My Captain's so
mean on me,
My Captain's so
mean on me.
My Captain's so mean on m-mmmm,
this Gulfport Island Road."(12).
Johnson's next verse is
Clapton and co's 'nonsensical' one quoted earlier. What Robert Johnson
actually sings, is:
"That cal (sic)
ain't been an' seen,
Gal ain't been an' seen,
That gal ain't
been an' seen, good Lord,
On that Gulfport
A sense of anger appears in
Johnson's voice in this verse, as well it might. The words allude to
undetected murders of black prisoners in the Southern penal system; a
theme which keeps cropping up in the Blues. Texas Alexander sang in
"I wonder what's the matter
with po' Annie Lee,
Lord, the Captain whupped her,
and she ain't been seen."(14).
Nearly 20 years later in Parchman Farm, "B.B." and six
fellow inmates immortalised another 'disappeared' black woman prisoner:
"Did you hear
Poor gal dead,
Lawdy, poor gal dead."(15).
Lomax says "About the life
and death of Louella Wallace, no accurate information exists... "(16).
Much later still came the famous, and excellent, post-war
recording by Calvin Leavy telling of the untold number of murdered convicts on his "Cumins
Prison Farm", way down there in Arkansas.
Johnson often provided unusual lyrics and turns of phrase which
reflected an earlier era than his own. The Gulf & Ship Island R.R. being
one example, having been absorbed by the Illinois Central in 1925 - some
11 years before Johnson's recording of "Last Fair Deal Gone Down". Far
from being "nonsensical", the verse Clapton and co. transcribed
phonetically, alludes to a very grim reality in the world of the blues
commencing at the tail-end of the nineteenth century.
Post script: Some food for
thought. Robert Johnson, it is well known, often drew on earlier blues
recordings. Did he get inspiration for his "nonsensical" verse from
Texas Alexander's closing words "... and she ain't been seen". Johnson's
extension of "been an' seen", though unusual, reads to me as "ain't been
around, and seen around." Also, 'Annie Lee' in Alexander's blues might
have led Johnson to 'Annabelle'. The Texan's last pre-war session was on
9th. April, 1934, in San Antonio some 2 years before Johnson recorded
"Last Fair Deal Gone Down" in the same city. Maybe Alexander was still
around, singing in the streets and Johnson heard "Penitentiary Moan
Blues" at first hand as part of the oral transmission process. But this
is pure conjecture on my part - so I won't bip another bop!!
1. Smith L.A. p.23.
2. Clapton E. &
4. Calt S.
5. Lomax A.
14. Alexander T.
1. Smith Laura
Alexandrine. "Music Of The Waters". Kegan Paul, Trench & Co. London.
2. Clapton Eric.
Steve La Vere. Keith Richards. Notes to "Robert Johnson The Complete
Recordings". 2x Cassettes. C.B.S. 467246 4. 1990.
3. Calt Stephen.
"78 Quarterly" Vol. 1. No.4. 1989.
4. Lomax Alan.
Notes to "Murderer's Home', L.P. Nixa NJL. II. 1957.
5. Salmond John.
"A Southern Rebel" The Life And Times of Aubrey Willis Williams
1890-1965. University of North Carolina. Chapel Hill. 1983.
6. Wharton Vernon
L. "The Negro In Mississippi 1865-1890". Harper & Row. 1965.
First pub. 1947.
7. "22". "It Makes
A Long Time Man Feel Bad". "22" vo.; ace. unk. group vo. 1947. Parchman,
8. Johnson Robert.
"Last Fair Deal Gone Down". Robert Johnson vo. gtr. 27/11/36. San
Texas. "Penitentiary Moan Blues". Texas Alexander vo.; Lonnie Johnson
gtr. 15/11/28. New York City.
10. "B.B." "Old
Alabama". "B.B." vo.; ace. unk. six males vo. 1947. Parchman, MS.
discographical details from "Blues & Gospel Records 1902-1943". R.M.W.
Dixon & J. Godrich. Storyville. 3rd. Ed. 1982.
transcriptions by Max Haymes unless otherwise stated.
"Encyclopedia Americana",Vol.19. Grolier Inc. N.Y. 1986. First pub.
Reformatted for the web from the original typed manuscript by Alan
White, January 2014.
page) © Copyright 1998 Max Haymes. All rights reserved.